China and the United Nations: Deepening Cooperation over Five Decades and Jointly Building a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind
This year marks the 50th anniversary of the restoration of the lawful seat of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the United Nations (UN). On October 25, China solemnly commemorated this historic event. President Xi Jinping delivered an important speech at the conference marking the 50th anniversary of the restoration of the lawful seat of the PRC in the UN. He noted that the past five decades since New China restored its lawful seat in the UN have witnessed China’s peaceful development and its dedication to the welfare of all humanity. For these 50 years, the Chinese people have demonstrated an untiring spirit and kept to the right direction of China’s development amidst changing circumstances, thus writing an epic chapter in the development of China and humanity. For these 50 years, the Chinese people have stood in solidarity and cooperation with people around the world and upheld international fairness and justice, contributing significantly to world peace and development. For these 50 years, the Chinese people have upheld the authority and sanctity of the UN and practiced multilateralism, and China’s cooperation with the UN has deepened steadily. President Xi Jinping stressed, “Let us join hands, stand on the right side of history and the side of human progress, and work tirelessly for the lasting and peaceful development of the world and for building a community with a shared future for mankind!” President Xi Jinping’s important speech carried out an insightful, historical review of the extraordinary journey jointly taken by New China and the UN over the past 50 years and, with a broad, global vision, pointed the way forward for peace and development of the world and solidarity and progress of all humanity. The international community responded warmly and positively to the speech, spoke highly of the epoch-making significance of the restoration of New China’s lawful seat in the UN, and applauded China’s all-round participation and full support for the work of the UN, its steadfast commitment to multilateralism and sustained, historic contribution to world peace and development throughout the last 50 years. The international community widely echoed President Xi Jinping’s new propositions for China-UN cooperation in the new era and expressed the hope that China will continue to play an important role in driving the global governance process and promoting the cause of human progress.
Since the founding of New China, we have always pursued an independent foreign policy of peace, stayed committed to the path of peaceful development, and made important contributions to world peace and development. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has, with a keen grasp of the prevailing trends in domestic and international development in the new era, engaged in a series of major innovations in the theory and practice of China’s external work, and formed Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, which provides the fundamental philosophy and guide to action for China’s external work. One of the core tenets of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy is to advance the building of a community with a shared future for mankind with the purpose of safeguarding world peace and promoting common development. This has provided important opportunities and opened up vast prospects for cooperation between China and the UN. Under President Xi Jinping’s initiative and stewardship, China is striving to foster a new type of international relations, build a community with a shared future for mankind, pursue high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, and enhance global cooperation on COVID response. China has held fast to the ideals of the UN, supported multilateralism, and stood together with the countries of the world under the UN flag to promote global peace and development. Looking back on the path travelled and looking forward to the journey ahead, China’s cooperation with the UN has made enormous achievements and will achieve still more in the future.
I. Five decades of cooperation between China and the UN has yielded significant achievements.
On October 25, 1971, the 26th Session of the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 2758 with an overwhelming majority. The resolution decided to restore all lawful rights of the PRC in the UN, and recognized the representatives of the Government of the PRC as the only lawful representatives of China to the UN. It was a momentous and historic event for both New China and the UN, as it marked the return of the Chinese people, or one quarter of humanity, back to the UN stage, and signified that the UN had truly become the most universal, representative and authoritative international organization. That was a day from which China’s development and progress has been truly connected with the prosperity and wellbeing of all in the world.
Over the last 50 years, under the strong leadership of the CPC, the Chinese people have, by relying on their own hard work and building on achievements in national construction and development since the founding of New China, started the new historical era of reform and opening-up, successfully initiated and developed socialism with Chinese characteristics, and continued to unleash and develop productivity. Through continuous hard work in this new era, the Chinese people have attained the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects on the vast land of China, secured a historic success in eradicating absolute poverty, embarked on a new journey toward the Second Centenary Goal of fully building a modern socialist country and opened up broad prospects for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. China’s development has provided important opportunities for the world and strong impetus to the UN’s cause. Over the past 50 years, no matter how the international landscape and global dynamics have evolved, China has always provided strong support and honored its commitment to the UN, and the Chinese people have made untiring efforts for and important contribution to peace and development of the world.
China has always been committed to pursuing world harmony and advancing human progress.
President Xi Jinping has pointed out that we should vigorously advocate humanity’s common values of peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom, and work together to provide the right guiding philosophy for building a better world. We should jointly promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind, and work together to build an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security and common prosperity. The UN Charter calls on people in all countries to “practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors” and to resolve to combine efforts to accomplish the aims set out in the UN Charter. China and the UN have been jointly committed to seeking a better future for humanity.
Chinese leaders have articulated major concepts and propositions at the UN on multiple occasions. In 1974, Deng Xiaoping, then Vice Premier of the State Council, attended the Sixth Special Session of the UN General Assembly, where he expounded on Chairman Mao Zedong’s “three worlds” theory and the principles guiding China’s foreign relations. In 2000, then President Jiang Zemin attended the UN Millennium Summit, where he put forward the idea of building a new international political and economic order that is just and equitable. In 2005, then President Hu Jintao attended the Summit on the 60th Anniversary of the UN, where he put forward the concept of a harmonious world. In particular, since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, President Xi Jinping has spoken at the UN on multiple occasions about the important vision of building a community with a shared future for mankind. In 2015, President Xi Jinping attended the high-level meetings marking the 70th anniversary of the UN where he outlined from five aspects the path for building a community with a shared future for mankind. In 2017, President Xi Jinping made a speech at the UN Office at Geneva in which he further expounded on the overall vision for shaping a better world along five lines of effort. In 2020, President Xi Jinping attended the high-level meetings marking the 75th anniversary of the UN, where he stated unequivocally China’s principled position and firm commitment to multilateralism, to upholding the authority of the UN, to following the path of peaceful development and win-win cooperation, and to building a community with a shared future for mankind. In 2021, President Xi Jinping gave an important speech at the 76th Session of the UN General Assembly, calling on the international community to bolster confidence and jointly address global threats and challenges, and work together to build a community with a shared future for mankind and a better world for all to live in.
Since it was founded, New China has, while pursuing interests for its own people, stayed committed to the well-being of humanity and shared interests of all countries. We follow an independent foreign policy of peace, and advocate peaceful coexistence and friendly cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. This means that as China works to safeguard and achieve its own interests, it does not seek to undermine the interests of other countries, but to promote the shared interests of all countries while upholding world peace. This is determined by the very nature of China as a state. The visions such as “building a community with a shared future for mankind” and “a people-centered philosophy” have been written into resolutions of the UN General Assembly, Security Council, Commission for Social Development, and Human Rights Council, clearly illustrating China’s role as a major responsible country in the world.
China has always been committed to upholding the central role of the UN in international affairs.
President Xi Jinping has stressed that we should resolutely uphold the authority and standing of the UN and work together to practice true multilateralism. Speaking at the 76th Session of the UN General Assembly, President Xi Jinping underscored that in the world, there is only one international system, i.e. the international system with the UN at its core; there is only one international order, i.e. the international order underpinned by international law; and there is only one set of rules, i.e. the basic norms governing international relations underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. The UN Charter clearly stipulates that the original members of the UN shall be the states which have participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco in 1945 and signed the Charter, and membership is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the Charter. Today, the UN has 193 member states, making it the most universal, representative and authoritative international organization. China and the UN have been jointly committed to defending the purposes and principles of the UN Charter.
China has always firmly upheld the authority of the UN and its central role in international affairs. China stands for holding high the banner of true multilateralism, and believes that global affairs should be handled through consultation and the future of the world should be decided by all countries working together. Efforts are needed to make the global governance system more just and equitable. China stands firmly opposed to the practice of bypassing the UN to form small groups, alliances or circles targeted at other countries, and of bypassing the Security Council to use force, impose sanctions or interfere in other countries’ internal affairs. China is firmly opposed to false multilateralism which is the practice of unilateralism in the name of multilateralism, and to hegemonism and power politics in all their manifestations.
China has actively participated in all areas of the UN’s work and supported its various endeavors through concrete actions. Successive UN Secretaries-General have paid more than 30 visits to China upon invitation, and all have commended China’s outstanding contribution to UN endeavors. Through concerted efforts, China and the UN have engaged in ever more in-depth and substantive cooperation. In September 2015, President Xi Jinping announced the establishment of the China-UN Peace and Development Fund when attending the high-level meetings marking the 70th anniversary of the UN. To date, China has put US$120 million into the fund and launched 112 cooperation projects through the fund to contribute to UN peace and development efforts. When attending the high-level meetings marking the 75th anniversary of the UN in September 2020, President Xi Jinping announced that the fund would be extended by five years after it expires in 2025. China has been the second largest financial contributor to the UN since 2019, and has advocated channeling more UN funding and resources to fields of particular care for developing countries. China has recommended a number of Chinese nationals to UN posts including heads of specialized agencies, special representative of the Secretary-General and resident coordinators, thus contributing Chinese wisdom and talent to UN endeavors.
China has always been committed to safeguarding world peace and security.
President Xi Jinping has stated that the Chinese people are peace-loving people. The Chinese nation has always carried forward and pursued the vision of peace, amity and harmony. China has never provoked a war or occupied an inch of foreign territory. China has never and will never invade or bully others, or seek dominance or hegemony. The founding goal of the UN is written clear on the first page of its Charter: “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind” and, for this purpose, “to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security.” Safeguarding global and regional peace, stability and development answers the shared call and aspiration of the international community. Meanwhile, it is important to note that conflict and turmoil still exist in parts of the world, that the shadow of hegemonism and power politics still lingers, and that destabilizing factors and uncertainties affecting global security have not subsided. China and the UN have been jointly committed to realizing the long-cherished aspiration of international peace and security.
As a permanent member of the Security Council, China has always held high the banner of political settlement and advocated disputes resolution through dialogue and consultation. It has actively supported the UN in carrying out authorized mediation efforts to effectively defend international fairness and justice. China adheres to the principle of non-interference in other countries’ internal affairs and resolutely opposes the willful use or threat of force in international affairs. China has actively participated in the resolution of major international and regional issues such as the Korean Peninsula nuclear issue, the Iranian nuclear issue and the issues of Iraq, Afghanistan, Myanmar, the Middle East, Syria, Libya, Sudan and South Sudan, and explored and practiced ways with distinct Chinese features for the settlement of these issues. Since 1990, China has assigned more than 50,000 personnel to some 30 UN peacekeeping operations. Currently, more than 2,200 Chinese peacekeepers are on active duty in eight UN mission areas, more than any other permanent member of the Security Council. China has established a standby force of 8,000 troops and a permanent police squad of 300 troops for peacekeeping, making China the country with the biggest standby force and most varieties of contingents among UN member states. China has acceded to more than 20 international arms control treaties and mechanisms, and has fully complied with all treaty obligations to firmly uphold the authority and effectiveness of multilateral arms control treaties. China has contributed significantly to concluding and preserving the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on the Iranian nuclear issue, and constructively engaged in seeking a solution to the issue of chemical weapons in Syria, delivering China’s proposals for global security governance.
China has always been committed to advancing global development through its own development.
President Xi Jinping has stressed that we should stay committed to mutual benefit and win-win results, and work together to promote economic and social development for the greater benefit of our peoples. At the 76th Session of the UN General Assembly, President Xi Jinping proposed the Global Development Initiative, calling on countries to work together to overcome the impact of COVID-19 on global development, to accelerate implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and to build a global community of development with a shared future. One of the important goals stated in the UN Charter is “to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples.” China and the UN have been jointly committed to promoting development with a higher level of quality, efficiency, equity, sustainability and security.
China has taken an active part in the UN’s work on development and vigorously promoted international development cooperation. We have held high the banner of development, been deeply involved in UN efforts on economic development, fully implemented the Millennium Development Goals, and played an active part in the global sustainable development agenda. We have continued to give priority to development and to prioritize development on the global macro-policy agenda. We have called for a development approach that essentially features the pursuit of equitable, open, all-round and innovation-driven development, and stayed committed to building more equitable and balanced global development partnerships. We have advocated building an open world economy, and upheld the multilateral trading system with the World Trade Organization at its core. We have announced a series of measures for enhancing international development cooperation, which include providing an additional US$3 billion of international assistance over the next three years to help developing countries fight COVID-19 and resume economic and social development, establishing the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund and the FAO-China South-South Cooperation Trust Fund, setting up the Center for International Knowledge on Development, canceling the debt of governmental interest-free loans owed by relevant developing countries, and striving to increase investment in the least developed countries to US$12 billion by 2030. We have also actively supported the UN in establishing, in China, a Geospatial Knowledge and Innovation Center and an International Research Center of Big Data for Sustainable Development Goals. China’s Belt and Road Initiative has drawn the participation of 141 countries and 32 international organizations, including 19 UN bodies, and has become a well-received international public good and an important platform for building a community with a shared future for mankind.
After over 40 years of continuous endeavor, more than 700 million people in China have been lifted out of extreme poverty, accounting for more than 70 percent of global poverty reduction. In 2021, China has lifted out of poverty all its 98.99 million rural residents living below the current poverty line, and met ten years ahead of schedule the poverty eradication target set out in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This represents a huge contribution to meeting the poverty reduction goals in the 2030 Agenda and realizing sustainable development globally. China has also taken the lead in releasing one national plan and two progress reports on implementing the 2030 Agenda, and reaped “early harvests” in multiple fields. China has been actively involved in international cooperation on poverty reduction, facilitated the UN General Assembly’s adoption of resolutions on rural poverty reduction for three consecutive years, and released its own poverty reduction case study entitled “Eradication of Extreme Poverty: China’s Practices.” China hosted the International Forum on Sharing Poverty Reduction Experience to showcase its significant achievements and best practice in fighting extreme poverty. We have also steadily scaled up input in international cooperation on poverty reduction, and fully implemented the various major, practical measures for poverty reduction in developing countries, including the 100 poverty reduction programs announced by President Xi Jinping.
China has always been committed to advancing the international human rights cause.
President Xi Jinping has observed that China has acted by the spirit of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and earnestly applied the universality of human rights in the Chinese context. It has blazed a path of human rights development that is consistent with the trend of the times and carries distinctive Chinese features, thus making major contribution to human rights progress in China and the international human rights cause. The UN Charter states the determination “to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person” and “in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small.” China and the UN have been jointly committed to respecting and safeguarding human rights.
China has worked actively to promote and safeguard human rights, and has participated extensively in global human rights governance. China has joined or ratified 26 international human rights instruments, including six core human rights conventions, and played a constructive role in the formulation of several important international human rights instruments, including the Declaration on the Right to Development and the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. We have been deeply involved in the work on multilateral human rights mechanisms. China was elected to the Human Rights Commission in 1981 and has since retained its seat through reelection. China has been elected to the Human Rights Council five times since 2006, successfully completed three cycles of Universal Periodic Review conducted by the Council, and facilitated the Council’s adoption of resolutions on the contribution of development to the enjoyment of all human rights, on promoting mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of human rights, and on the negative impact of the legacies of colonialism on the enjoyment of human rights. China has delivered joint statements on behalf of developing countries on multiple occasions regarding such issues as realizing the right to development, promoting human rights through poverty reduction, advancing international human rights cooperation and ensuring equitable global distribution of vaccines, to contribute China’s wisdom and strength to global human rights governance. China has established human rights dialogue or consultation mechanisms with over 20 countries and international organizations, and is committed to carrying out human rights dialogue and cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual respect.
China has promoted sound development of global human rights governance. We have advocated a people-centered development philosophy, stayed committed to applying the universality of human rights to specific national realities, and advanced all categories of human rights with a systemic approach. We have enhanced international human rights dialogue and cooperation, and worked actively for human rights progress in China and for the advancement of the human rights cause in the world. China is firmly opposed to politicizing human rights and using human rights as a pretext for interfering in others’ internal affairs. In the 1990s, China thwarted 11 anti-China human rights motions tabled by certain Western countries. In recent years, China has foiled a succession of anti-China initiatives on human rights driven by some Western countries in multilateral settings. China has always stood up for developing countries to uphold international fairness and justice.
China has always been committed to promoting international cooperation in the social, health, environmental, and cultural domains.
President Xi Jinping has stressed the importance of strengthening cooperation and working together to address the various challenges and global issues facing humanity. The UN Charter states the determination “to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom” and “to achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character.” China and the UN have been jointly committed to meeting global challenges and promoting the well-being of all humanity.
China has been an active part in global health affairs and major international health initiatives. We have vigorously advanced global cooperation on epidemic response, provided international assistance and support, and played an important role in helping recipient countries counter epidemics and develop better medical and health services. During the Ebola epidemic, in response to the call of the World Health Organization (WHO), China provided anti-epidemic supplies, food, and cash assistance to 13 African countries, including Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. China also helped set up testing labs and sent medical teams and public health experts to Africa. These are important contributions that China made to the victory over Ebola. After COVID-19 broke out, China provided timely updates to the WHO, shared the genome sequence of the virus, and received a team of experts from the WHO. China also took the lead in joining the WHO’s COVAX initiative, and has provided US$50 million in cash aid to actively support the global fight against COVID-19. At the virtual opening session of the 73rd World Health Assembly, President Xi Jinping delivered an important statement in which he called on all countries to fight COVID-19 through solidarity and cooperation. China has actively responded to the UN Global Humanitarian Response Plan, by sending aid supplies to more than 150 countries and international organizations, exporting anti-COVID-19 supplies to more than 200 countries and regions, and providing more than 320 billion masks, 3.9 billion protective suits, and 5.6 billion testing kits. China has acted on its commitment to making vaccines a global public good, having already supplied over 1.6 billion doses of vaccines to more than 100 countries and international organizations. For the whole year of 2021, China will have provided over two billion doses to the world. China is also conducting joint vaccine production with 16 countries with an initial annual production capacity of 700 million doses. China has made a US$100 million donation to COVAX for vaccine distribution in developing countries, and will donate, on that basis, another 100 million doses to developing countries to contribute to the global line of defense of vaccines.
China has actively participated in the UN’s work on education, science, culture, climate change, environment, women, youth, drugs, refugees, migrants, maritime affairs, civil aviation, telecommunications, and persons with disabilities. We have joined relevant international conventions and reported on the fulfillment of our obligations according to schedule. China has taken active steps to respond to climate change and, as one of the first signatories of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, made important contributions to the conclusion of the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. China has announced its goal of striving to peak carbon emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060, and has put in place a “1+N” policy framework* to that end. China successfully hosted the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Second UN Global Sustainable Transport Conference, helping to put humanity on a new journey of high-quality development and promote cooperation on global connectivity. China successfully hosted the Fourth World Conference on Women, at which the Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action were adopted. The conference has become an important milestone in the history of women’s development. China and UN Women successfully co-hosted a Global Summit of Women, and proposed holding another Global Summit of Women in 2025.
II. The UN needs to play a more important role under new circumstances.
President Xi Jinping pointed out at the 76th Session of the UN General Assembly that the UN should hold high the banner of true multilateralism and serve as the central platform for countries to jointly safeguard universal security, share development achievements, and chart the course for the future of the world. Under the new circumstances, the UN should play a bigger role in international affairs.
(1) The UN is at the core of the international system. International law is the foundation of international order. And the purposes and principles of the UN Charter are the bedrock of international rules.
To uphold the existing international system, one must uphold the core position of the UN in international affairs. To uphold the existing international order, one must uphold the fundamental role of international law. To uphold existing international rules, one must uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. This is the overwhelming consensus of UN member states. The UN Charter, signed by all 193 members states, should be observed by all 193 member states. There is and should be no exception. The UN is an important source of international legitimacy. This legitimacy comes from the universality of the organization’s membership and the international institutional power that it brings. It also comes from the common values reflected in the UN Charter, i.e. its purposes and principles. None of the so-called rules and standards formulated by small groups, alliances or blocs have such legality or legitimacy, and none are to be taken as universally recognized international rules or standards, still less be forced upon other countries.
(2) The UN is a core mechanism for upholding and practicing true multilateralism and the main platform of global governance.
Multilateralism must adhere to multilateral principles and reflect the multilateral spirit. True multilateralism does not put one country or group of countries first, or draw lines on the basis of ideology, still less practice false multilateralism which is unilateralism under the guise of multilateralism. True multilateralism follows the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. It is predicated on equality and aimed at mutually beneficial cooperation. It is essentially about handling matters of shared concern through consultation and safeguarding shared interests through joint efforts. The UN is a product of the ideal of multilateralism and a platform for putting multilateralism into practice. Within the UN framework, every country has an equal status, every country has a voice to be heeded, and every country has a vote that counts. The UN is a stage upon which member states uphold and practice multilateralism, and a core mechanism and platform for realizing world peace and development. All member states must work together to uphold the authority of the UN, and make concerted efforts to consolidate its core position in international affairs.
(3) The founding mission of the UN is to safeguard world peace, stability, development and prosperity.
It is easy to start out on a mission, but not as easy to follow it through. It has been 76 years since the UN was founded. However far it has come, it should never forget why it started in the first place. The two sculptures in front of the UN Headquarters, “Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares” and “The Knotted Gun,” are a constant reminder that we must end war, stop killing, and turn weapons of destruction into tools that could be used to benefit humanity. Another sculpture, “Sphere Within a Sphere,” carries the message that we must protect the planet that we call our common and only home. From the Millennium Development Goals to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the UN has held fast to the conviction that no country should be left behind. Pursuing peace and development is the UN’s founding mission. It is also a source of strength for the UN and a goal for it to strive for.
(4) The UN belongs to all its member states. It needs to respect the wishes of its members, uphold their interests, and vigorously promote common values of humanity.
We must respect the development paths chosen by the people of different countries in light of their national conditions and realities. It is important to learn to appreciate the beauty of diversity and interaction among different cultures, religions, ethnicities and races, share the best of what we each have to offer through exchange and mutual learning, and promote humanity’s common values of peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom through dialogue on an equal footing. Against the backdrop of mounting global challenges, the international community needs to focus on issues that are vital to the immediate interests of peoples around the world, such as cooperation against COVID-19, global economic recovery and climate response, and form a great synergy to tide over the difficulties. The UN embodies the shared conviction of people around the world that we live on a tiny planet, and we are inseparable in terms of our security, prosperity, rights and even survival and development. The UN belongs to every member state, and needs to play its role to the full. As long as we work in unison and help each other, we will be able to foster a new type of international relations and build a community with a shared future for mankind.
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