扫码领英语资料

听说读写全覆盖


80万+已关注

2021年CATTI二级口译培训内容第26讲

2021-07-14 14:27:00来源:网络

  新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的相关内容,希望能够对大家的英语考试备考有所帮助,更多有关英语的备考内容,欢迎随时关注新东方在线英语频道。

  篇章练习

  The Kyoto Protocol was an historic step toward the protection of the earth's climate system. As we know, industrialized countries--which historically have been largely responsible for anthropogenic greenhouse gases--agreed to ambitious and legally binding emission reduction targets.1 The United States, for example, pledged to reduce its emissions to 7% below 1990 levels by the period 2008 to 2012. Industrialized countries as a whole promised to reduce their emissions by approximately 5% over the same period. //

  In many ways, the United States' target is the most ambitious given its tremendous economic growth since 1990.2 Based on current projections, the United States will have to reduce emissions from a business-as-usual scenario by roughly 30% in real terms to meet its Kyoto target.3 That figure stands in sharp contrast to the approximately 12% reduction required by industrialized countries as a group. //

  Yet, standing alone, the Kyoto targets would represent little more than a momentary pause along a steep path of rising global emissions. The importance of the Kyoto Protocol, therefore, lies less in the initial emissions reduction numbers, than in thestructural elements of its climate control regime. I refer to the decisions to include: a basket of the six major greenhouse gases rather than just carbon; a multi-year commitment period rather than a single target year; and activities that take carbon out of the air and store it in the ground, commonly called carbon sequestration or "sinks".4 //

  The most important structural innovation in the Protocol, however, was the creation of several new mechanisms designed to harness market forces to determine how and where to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The first of these mechanisms, emissions trading, will allow developed countries to achieve their emissions targets by trading emission credits among themselves, thereby ensuring that emission reductions are achieved in the most cost effective manner. // In the United States, we have had a very positive experience with emissions trading in acid-rain-causing sulfur dioxide, which has allowed us to reduce that pollution faster than planed, at a fraction of the estimated price and with virtually 100% compliance. //

  Kyoto also created the "Clean Development Mechanism" or CDM, which creates incentive for emitters in developed countries to reduce emissions in developing countries through, for example,investments in clean energy projects.5 Another Kyoto mechanism allows countries to transfer portions of their initial emission allowances among each other and in this way adjust their Kyoto targets. The European Union has taken advantage of this mechanism by pooling or "bubbling" its emissions into a single supranational emission target.6//

  In sum, the greatest achievement at Kyoto was the creation of an architectural framework for sustained, broad-based and costeffective international action on climate change.

  The Kyoto conference, at the same time, left unanswered a number of absolutely critical questions, such as:

  ---How the Kyoto mechanisms would work in practice

  ---How to create a strong, predictable and fair compliance regime.

  ---How to define the role allowed to carbon sinks.

  Also left unresolved were a range of particularly politically charged question relating to the role of developing countries and domestic action.

  It is in this sense that the Protocol is generally described as a work in progress. //

  COP-4 and COP-5

  Following Kyoto, it became clear rather quickly that the Protocol is the most complex, broad ranging and ambitious environmental agreement ever negotiated by the international community--and that sorting through the outstanding issues would require a monumental amount of technical, scientific, legal and political work.7//

  Since Kyoto, the international community has been working hard to put flesh on the Kyoto skeleton. We have reaffirmed our political will to finish the rules for the Protocol as soon as possible to allow for its early ratification and timely entry into force. We have reaffirmed our resolve to tie up as many outstanding issues as possible by November of this year in The Hague at the sixth conference of parties, referred to as COP-6

  COP-6

  Even though most government are working hard to make COP-6 a success, a significant number of major issues remain unresolved with just four months to go. Let me give you a flavor of why "getting to yes" has been so difficult. Perhaps one of the most contentious philosophical differences in the negotiations is between the European Union and the Umbrella Group, a pairing of like-minded countries that includes Japan, Russia, Canada, Norway, Australia and the United States. //

  The encouraging fact is that the European Union and the Umbrella Group share the same major objective: to create a climate protection regime with great environmental integrity. As someone with over twenty years of experience in the environmental community, let me assure all of you that protecting the climate in a manner that has environmental integrity is not only our national goal, but is also my highest personal priority in this negotiation. I am particularly proud that the United States has led the way in pushing for a strong, legally binding compliance system, as well as beefed up monitoring and reporting requirements. //

  In contrast, the EU and Umbrella Group's approaches to the question of the cost of the Protocol are quite different. The EU is concerned that implementing the Protocol, particularly in the United States, will be too easy. Some in Europe think that we have a moral obligation to change our lifestyle as quickly and radically as possible.8 //

  In this sense, many in the EU believe that producing significant short-term pain and suffering is actually desirable, rather than something to be avoided. The EU is also concerned that enterprises in the United States and other countries relying on efficient market-oriented approaches will enjoy a competitive advantage over European businesses that have been subjected to carbon taxes and extensive regulation.9//

  In contrast, the United States and its Umbrella Group partners believe that the most cost-effective and affordable solutions willbuild the broadest public support for action and stretch our dollars to achieve the maximum environmental protection. We are concerned that, under any assumption, implementing the protocol will be a difficult exercise having discernible effect on national economies, and that if elaborated in the wrong way, it will cost more than is necessary. //

  That is why we have sought scientifically sound inclusion of carbon sequestration opportunities, and why we have opposed arbitrary rules that would raise costs, such as limits on the market mechanisms. We believe that if it is allowed to function effectively,the market, rather than governments, will determine the right investments in new technologies. We reject the notion that tackling climate change should be unreasonably painful. //

  (Excerpts from "Under Secretary of State Loy on Kyoto Protocol" made by former Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs Frank E.Loy to American Bar Association Conference)

  以上就是新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的相关内容,希望对大家有所帮助,更多备考内容,欢迎随时关注新东方在线英语频道。


本文关键字: CATTI考试 CATT

为你特别匹配的雅思超值课程,快速提分先人一步!
  • CATTI三级笔译全程通关班

    翻译技能全面提升·助教团答疑解惑

    课时:45

    查看详情
  • CATTI三级翻译全程通关班(笔译+口译)

    适合人群:通关三级口译以及笔译实务的你。

    课时:90

    查看详情
  • 上海高级口译口试通关班

    适合人群:顺利通过上海高级口译的你

    课时:28

    查看详情
  • 上海中级口译全程通关班

    适合人群:顺利通过上海中级口译的你

    课时:79

    查看详情
  • 上海基础口译全程通关班

    品质录播课+真题解析+学习群助教辅助练习

    课时:33

    查看详情
更多>>
更多课程>>
更多>>
更多课程>>
更多>>
  • 这两本适合考CATTI的你!

      距离6月19、20日的考试越来越近,不知道大家复习的怎么样了?不管是口译还是笔译,词汇都是一切的基础。有了丰富的词汇储备,才能灵活应

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-06 14:57:18 关键字 : CATTI备考

  • 考完三笔,怎么备战CATTI二笔?难度大吗?

      021上半年年CATTI考试已经正式落下帷幕,希望所有参加考试的同学都能顺利通过。  最近,也有小伙伴问:考完三笔以后,怎么备战二笔呀

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-06 14:55:49 关键字 : CATTI二笔

  • 一文就让你了解CATTI证书的含金量!

      考证书有用吗?相信不少人心中都有这样的一个疑问。  对于对语言感兴趣,想从事翻译相关工作的人来说,CATTI证书是你的不二选择。因为

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-06 14:55:01 关键字 : CATTI证书

  • 2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第57期

      新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第57期,希望能够对大家的英语考试备考有所帮助,更多有关英语的备考内容,

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-11 14:51:00 关键字 : CATTI考试 CATT

  • 2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第56期

      新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第56期,希望能够对大家的英语考试备考有所帮助,更多有关英语的备考内容,

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-11 14:51:00 关键字 : CATTI考试 CATT

  • 2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第55期

      新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第55期,希望能够对大家的英语考试备考有所帮助,更多有关英语的备考内容,

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-11 14:51:00 关键字 : CATTI考试 CATT

  • 2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第54期

      新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第54期,希望能够对大家的英语考试备考有所帮助,更多有关英语的备考内容,

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-10 14:50:00 关键字 : CATTI考试 CATT

  • 2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第53期

      新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第53期,希望能够对大家的英语考试备考有所帮助,更多有关英语的备考内容,

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-10 14:50:00 关键字 : CATTI考试 CATT

  • 2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第52期

      新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第52期,希望能够对大家的英语考试备考有所帮助,更多有关英语的备考内容,

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-10 14:50:00 关键字 : CATTI考试 CATT

  • 2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第51期

      新东方在线英语频道给大家整理的2021年CATTI政府工作报告词组第51期,希望能够对大家的英语考试备考有所帮助,更多有关英语的备考内容,

    来源 : 网络 2021-07-10 14:50:00 关键字 : CATTI考试 CATT

更多内容